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Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites.Once bounded with Ca2 , the vesicles dock and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by a process known as exocytosis.The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors embedded on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.Following several local graded depolarizations of the membrane potential, the threshold of excitation is reached, voltage-gated sodium channels are activated, which leads to an influx of Na ions.Synaptic plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses has been found to be dependent upon postsynaptic calcium release Two molecular mechanisms for synaptic plasticity (researched by the Eric Kandel laboratories) involve the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors.

If more of the same type of postsynaptic receptors are activated, then more Na will enter the postsynaptic membrane and depolarize cell.

When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.

These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.

Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.

There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters.

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